This and That
In this lesson you'll learn how to use the Spanish demonstrative adjectives and pronouns.
You'll also learn how to talk about what you like and dislike, as well as how to ask people what they like and dislike.
Demonstratives are words like this and that. Demonstratives can come before a noun, in which case they are adjectives, or they can replace a noun, in which case they are pronouns.
In Spanish demonstratives have different forms depending the number and gender of the object they represent. If a demonstrative refers to a feminine noun, use the feminine form. If it refers to a masculine noun, use the masculine form. There is also a neuter form of the demonstrative pronouns that is used when the object is unknown. Demonstrative pronouns can have an accent mark on the first e in the written language, but it is not required. The following table shows the forms of the demonstratives.
|this||that||that (farther away)|
Demonstratives are very commonly used words, and so it's a good idea to become very familiar with them. The following are some examples of how demonstratives are used in Spanish.
|¿Cómo se llama eso?||What's that called?|
|¿Qué es eso?||What's that?|
|¡Esto es increíble!||This is incredible!|
|¿Conoces a este hombre?||Do you know this man?|
|Este es mi padre.||This is my father.|
|Estas son mis hijas.||These are my daughters.|
|Esta es mi amiga Ana.||This is my friend Ana.|
|Este tren va a Madrid, y ese va a Granada.||This train goes to Madrid, and that one goes to Granada.|
|¿Quiénes son esas personas?||Who are those people?|
|Esos gatos están en nuestra casa otra vez.||Those cats are in our house again.|
|Esta casa es demasiado grande y esa casa es demasiado pequeña.||This house is too big and that house is too small.|
Expressing likes and dislikes
When talking to people, the topic of things you like and dislike comes up quite often. In Spanish the verb gustar, which means to be pleasing is used. To say I like in Spanish you say Me gusta, which is literally translated as to me it is pleasing. When referring to more than one thing, the plural form of gustar is used, so Me gustan means To me they are pleasing or I like them.
The following table shows the different forms of gustar.
|Me gusta.||I like it.|
|Me gustan.||I like them.|
|Te gusta.||You like it. (familiar singular)|
|Te gustan.||You like them. (familiar singular)|
|Le gusta.||He/She likes it.|
|Le gustan.||He/She likes them.|
|Nos gusta.||We like it.|
|Nos gustan.||We like them.|
|Os gusta.||You like it. (familiar plural)|
|Os gustan.||You like them. (familiar plural)|
|Les gusta.||They like it. (familiar plural)|
|Les gustan.||They like them. (familiar plural)|
If you want to say that you love something (that's not alive), use Me gusta mucho, or me encanta. To say that you love a person, use the verb amar.
To say that you don't like something in Spanish, you say No me gusta, or No me gustan. To say that you really dislike or hate something, use the verb odiar.
|Me gusta la pizza.||I like pizza.|
|Les gusta el español.||They like Spanish.|
|¿Te gustan estos zapatos?||Do yo like those shoes?|
|¿Qué te gusta hacer?||What do you like to do?|
|¿Te gusta viajar?||Do you like to travel?|
|No nos gusta tener que esperar.||We don't like having to wait.|
|¿Os gusta Argentina?||Do you like Argentina? (familiar plural)|
|Me gustan sus novelas.||I like his novels.|
|¿A quién le gusta el café?||Who likes coffee?|
|A Marta le gusta.||Marta likes it.|
|A ella no le gusta.||She doesn't like it.|
|¡Odio los mariscos!||I hate seafood!|
Here are some questions to help you learn the Spanish demonstratives and the verb gustar. Use the familiar forms of you.
|This is my mother.|
|What's this called?|
|That cat is big.|
|Those are my daughters.|
|These are my sons.|
|Do you like it?|
|Lucas doesn't like them.|
|We like pizza.|
|I like to read.|
|We like these cats.|