Lesson 4 - To Be


In this lesson you'll learn how to use the very common English verb be. You'll also learn the English pronouns, possessive adjectives, and how to use contractions.


City Street

Eric and Ashley are walking to a restaurant for lunch. On the way they see Eric's friend Tom.

Eric: Hi Tom. How's it going?

Tom: Good.

Eric: This is Ashley. She is from London.

Tom: Nice to meet you Ashley.

Ashley: Nice to meet you too. Are you hungry? We're going for lunch.

Tom: I'm hungry, but I have to go back to work. Maybe I'll see you later.

Ashley: Bye.

Eric: Let's go. John is already there.


Eric: こんにちはトム。 調子はどう?

Tom: 良い。

Eric: これはアシュリーです。 彼女はロンドン出身です。

Tom: 始めまして。

Ashley: 私の方もお会いできてうれしいです。 空腹ですか? 私たちは昼食のために行きます。

Tom: 私はお腹がすいたが、私は仕事に戻る必要があります。 たぶん私は後であなたに会います。

Ashley: さようなら

Eric: 行こう。 ジョンはすでにそこにあります。


Sound restaurant レストラン
Sound lunch ランチ
Sound On the way they see Eric's friend Tom. レストランに向かう途中、彼らはエリックの友人であるトムを参照してください。
Sound How's it going? 調子はどう?
Sound good 良い
Sound This is Ashley. She is from London. これはアシュリーです。 彼女はロンドン出身です。
Sound Nice to meet you. 始めまして。
Sound Are you hungry? 空腹ですか?
Sound I'm hungry. お腹がすきました。
Sound We're going for lunch. 私たちは昼食のために行きます。
Sound Let's go. 行こう。
Sound I have to go back to work. 私は仕事に戻って行かなければなりません。
Sound I'll see you later. また後で。
Sound already 既に
Sound there そこ




Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns in a sentence. Pronouns are a very important part of the English language, so be sure to take the time to learn them.

There are three types of pronouns in English: subject, object, and possessive. The subject is what is doing the action and the object is what is receiving or affected by the action.

Possessive Adjectives are used in front of a noun to show who the noun belongs to. Possessive pronouns are pronouns that indicate ownership. They can be used to replace a possessive adjective and its noun. For example: It is my cup. It is mine. The cup is mine.

The pronoun you is used when referring to a single person as well as multiple people. Its subject and object forms are the same. You is used in both formal and informal situations.

Subject Object Poss. Adj. Poss. Pronoun
I me my mine
you you your yours 貴方
he him his his
she her her hers 彼女
it it its its それ
we us our ours 我々
they them their theirs 彼ら

Reflexive Pronouns

A reflexive pronoun is used as the object when the subject and object are the same person. The expression by + reflexive pronoun means alone. Example: Anna lives by herself.

The following table shows the English reflexive pronouns.

Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun
I myself
you yourself
she herself
he himself
it itself
one oneself
we ourselves
they themselves


I pour myself a glass of juice.
Mark blames himself for the accident.
Brad and Tammy can't finish the work by themselves.

To Be (生きる, 居る)

The verb be is very common in English. It is also the most irregular verb in the English language. It is used to describe or indicate the state of a person or object. It is also used to indicate that two concepts are the same or equal.

be 存在する, 居る
I am
you are
he is
she is
it is
we are
they are


A contraction is a shortened version of a word, or a group of words. Contractions are indicated by an apostrophe.

The English language has many contractions. Contractions are very common with pronouns and the verb be. The following table shows the contractions between pronouns and the verb be.

I am I'm
you are you're
he is he's
she is she's
it is it's
we are we're
they are they're


Where are you? どこにいますか?
Where is she? 彼女はどこ?
We're here. 私たちはここにいる。
He's on his way. 彼はすでに去りました。
She is thirsty. 彼女はのどが渇いています。
I'm hungry. お腹がすきました。
I saw him. 私は彼を見た。
We saw her. 私たちは彼女を見ました。
He saw them. 彼はそれらを見ました。
You are late. 遅いよ。
They are angry. 彼らは怒っています。
This is my friend. これは私の友人であります。
The house is ours.
The sky is blue. 空が青いです。
That is my shirt. それは私のシャツです。
That is your cup. それはあなたのカップです。
Their cups are empty. 彼らのカップは空です。


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